Kinship terminology

kinship terminology examples

Figure 6. Like Iroquois people, Dravidians use the same words to refer to their father's sister and mother-in-law atthai in Tamil and atthe in Kannada and their mother's brother and father-in-law maamaa in Tamil and maava in Kannada.

Kinship terminology chart

Lavenda Robert H. As interactions between an individual and relatives traced through the mother are not so finely drawn, terminological distinctions also tend to be less finely distinguished. When different kinds of genealogical relationships are merged into one category, such as in English terminology all male siblings being denoted as brother, or all mothers of parents being called grandmother, this reduces the information that might have been needed many terminologies have different terms for male siblings, often based on relative age, and many have different terms for father's mother and mother's mother to describe kinship relationships. Systematic Kinship Terminologies. A male or a female person may be assigned to each position represented by a box in Figure 1 as a parent, child or spouse by cultural criteria that need not be biologically based. Descriptive systems are typically found wherever the nuclear family operates as a relatively autonomous unit economically and socially; as a result, they are relatively rare in ethnographic literature. Six such systems of kinship terminology have been identified, based on the manner in which cousins and siblings are classified: Hawaiian, Eskimo, Sudanese, Iroquois, Crow, and Omaha Murdock There are nuclear family terms as well as terms for both maternal and paternal uncles, aunts, and cousins. Societies with similar patterns of descent, residence, and family organization are likely to allocate roles, rights, and responsibilities similarly. For example, if P is the pathway self r father r mother and Q is the pathway self r son r daughter, then we may concatenate P and Q to form the genealogical pathway self r father r mother r son r daughter. The third type of kinship is a special form of fictitious kinship created through a ritual, such as godparenthood, adoption, or fraternization.

Crapo, Richley. Eskimo kinship[ edit ] Eskimo kinship : has both classificatory and descriptive terms; in addition to sex and generation, it also distinguishes between lineal relatives those related directly by a line of descent and collateral relatives those related by blood, but not directly in the line of descent.

Now, as culture-bearers, we need a name for this new kinship relation, father of mother, shown in Figure 3.

Lineal kinship terminology

One's father's brother's children and one's mother's sister's children are not cousins but brothers and sisters one step removed. We will refer to this relation by the position that is instantiated. Unfortunately, this has not come to pass yet and it is rarely the case that the original form of the data will resemble that used for data input. This accounts for the genealogical definitions of kin terms otherwise presumed to be primary data for understanding kinship relations. For example, some languages have no one-word equivalent to cousin, because different terms refer to one's mother's sister's children and to one's father's sister's children. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. In English, the abbreviations of the terms of kinship consist of the first letter or sometimes the first two letters of the terms: B: Brother. Crapo, Richley. Marriages between such cousins are allowed and encouraged. The Sudanese System. For instance, Tagalog borrows the relative age system of the Chinese kinship and follows the generation system of kinship. There are nuclear family terms as well as terms for both maternal and paternal uncles, aunts, and cousins. Kinship relations include both the relations in the family space used to generate new relations and the new relations generated from these relations.

One is that the sibling positions are directly linked to the parent positions and indirectly to the self position through the parent position [Fig. It is common among Pacific Island peoples.

A male or a female person may be assigned to each position represented by a box in Figure 1 as a parent, child or spouse by cultural criteria that need not be biologically based.

kinship terminology pdf

For example, in a society of individuals, there may be nearly one million genealogical relationships, though this number will more typically be a few hundreds of thousands.

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Kinship and Kinship Terminologies