Infants and children under seven were particularly vulnerable to the effects of malnutrition, diseases, and various infections.
There really has been a civilizing process" in which, scholars say, an increase in state power and courtly manners beginning in the 16th and 17th centuries helped curb impulsive, violent behavior. But as well as jeopardising livelihoods, bad weather could kill. From their archival records, Smail was able to find that during the s, there were on average cases of seizure on annual basis — 1 in 10 households would have their goods seized each year.
Since the s, there has been an increase in rates in many parts of Europe, but it has not come anywhere near the levels recorded for the late medieval period.
Nor, with chronic malnutrition, did the breast milk of medieval mothers carry the same immunity and other benefits of breast milk today. Carroll, S. Yet willingness to fight, not least in defence of a perception of masculine honour, has to be adjusted historically to growing cultural differentiation between different social classes.